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豆角
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果儿传媒

 

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Profile


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Menu Style

Cpanel

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豆角

0.0/5 rating (0 votes)

栽培季节

   豆角在我国长江以 南各地,春、夏、秋均可栽培;生长季节长;必须根据各季节的气候条件,选用适当的品种。豆角一般分春季栽培和夏秋季栽培。春季栽培于2月下旬至3月下旬育 苗,3月下旬至4月下旬定植,6月上旬至8月中旬采收,7月下旬至8月上旬采种。夏秋季栽培于5月中旬至8月初播种,7月上旬至10月下旬采收。

种植移栽

   豆角可直播,也可育苗移栽,一般都是育苗移栽,通过育苗移栽,可适当抑制营养生长,促进生殖生长,采用营养钵或保温苗床育苗。每667m2播种量为 2.5kg左右。育苗一般选用大棚,播前应准备好营养土苗床及营养钵。营养土苗床要提前翻耕,捣细耙平,每667m2施腐熟有机肥1000kg左右,如用 营养钵育苗,则营养钵直径不应小于8cm,高不应低于10cm。然后在平整的床上按7~8cm见方播粒大饱满的种子3~4粒(营养钵中同样播3~4粒种子),浇足底水,盖上0.5cm厚的营养土,再平铺地膜,然后用小拱棚保温。播种后,在正常情况下4~7d可出苗,幼苗出土后要及时揭掉地膜,但小拱棚仍要昼揭夜盖。出苗后,白天保持温度20~25℃,大棚内既要注意保温,又要进行通风和换气,以保证幼苗生长整齐、健壮;种子发芽期和幼苗期床土不宜过湿,以免降低发芽率,或导致幼苗徒长,甚至烂根死苗。

  豆角的定植期要根据栽培方式和生育指标来确定。采用营养土块育苗时 一般于第一复叶开展时即可定植。采用营养钵育苗时可延迟至2~3片复叶时定植。大棚栽培3月下旬定植,小拱棚栽培4月上旬定植,地膜栽培4月中旬定植,露 地栽培4月下旬定植。采用营养钵育苗时应用打洞器打洞移栽,采用营养土育苗时用定植刀打穴定植,定植后浇好定根水,并填实细土和封严定植孔。一般每畦 1.8m宽(连沟)种2行,行距80~100cm,穴距22~25cm,每667m2栽3000穴。

施肥浇水

  豆 角前期不宜多施肥,防止肥水过多,引起徒长,影响开花结荚(图 2)。成活后浇1次腐熟粪水,当植株开花结荚以后,一般追肥2~3次,每667m2每次追 尿素5~15kg,或腐熟人粪尿750~1000kg,促进植株生长,多开花,多结荚。豆荚盛收期,应增加肥水,此时如缺肥缺水,就会落花落荚,茎蔓生长 衰退(表 1)。摘心后还可翻花,延长采收期。抽蔓后要及时搭架,架高2.0~2.5m,搭好架后要及时引蔓,引蔓要在晴天下午进行,不要在雨天或早晨进 行,以防折断。合理整枝,使茎蔓均匀分布,提高光能利用率。利用主蔓和侧蔓结荚,增加花序数及其结荚率,延长采收期,提高产量。为此,适当选留侧蔓,摘除 生长弱和迟发生第1花序的侧蔓,选留生长健壮,发生第1花序早的侧蔓,其中在主蔓中部以上长出的侧蔓,抽出第1花序后留4~5叶打顶,以增加花序数,并促 进花序良好发育;主蔓长至棚架顶部,蔓长2m左右时也可打顶;促进各花序上的副花芽形成,也方便采收豆荚。

  当嫩荚已饱满,而种子痕迹尚未显露时,为采收适期。一般自开花后11~13d为商品豆荚采收期。采收时,不要伤及花序上的其他花蕾,采收后扎成把,装箱上市。

注意事项

  在选购豆角时,一般以豆条粗细均匀、色泽鲜艳、透明有光泽、子粒饱满的为佳,而有裂口、皮皱的、条过细无子、表皮有虫痕的豆角则不宜购买。

  豆角极易种植,而且蔓延很快,所以产量多而价钱便宜。营养成份很好,是蔬菜中肉类。

  有人会嫌豆角有少许菜腥味,只要炒时用热锅、滚油爆香葱粒,才下豆角炒透,腥味自会消失。

  豆角含丰富维生素B、C和植物蛋白质,能使人头脑宁静.调理消化系统,消除胸膈胀满。可防治急性肠胃炎,呕吐腹泻。有解渴健脾、补肾止泄、益气生津的功效。

  豆角一定要焯透,以防止中毒。因为豆角和其它豆类蔬菜一样,都含有皂角和植物凝集素, 这两种物质对胃肠黏膜有较强的刺激作用,并对细胞有破坏和溶血作用,严重的还会出现出血性炎症。中毒后病人可有上腹痛。饱胀、恶心、呕吐、腹泻等 。重者 可有呕血、四肢麻木等症状。这两种中毒物质不耐热,经充分加热后,就可将有毒物质破坏。预防豆角中毒的主要方法是把豆角彻底炒煮、熟后,再食用。

食用价值

  豆类蔬菜主要包括扁豆刀豆豌豆豇豆等;大部分人只知道它们含有较多的优质蛋白不饱和脂肪酸(好的脂肪),矿物质和维生素含量也高于其他蔬菜,却不知道它们还具有重要的药用价值。中医认为,豆类蔬菜的共性是性平、有化湿补脾的功效,对脾胃虚弱的人尤其适合。但是,根据种类的不同,它们的食疗作用也有所区别。

食用功效

  四季豆性甘、淡、微温,归脾、胃经;化湿而不燥烈,健脾而不滞腻,为脾虚湿停常用之品;有调和脏腑、安养精神、益气健脾、消暑化湿和利水消肿的功效;主治脾虚兼湿、食少便溏,湿浊下注、妇女带下过多,还可用于暑湿伤中、吐泻转筋等证。

品种分类

  【豇豆】:

  也就是我们所说的长豆角。它除了有健脾、和胃的作用外,最重要的是能够补肾。李时珍曾称赞它能够“理中益气,补肾健胃,和五脏,调营卫,生精髓”。所谓“营卫”,就是中医所说的营卫二气,调整好了,可充分保证人的睡眠质量。此外,多吃豇豆还能治疗呕吐、打嗝等不适。小孩食积、气胀的时候,用生豇豆适量,细嚼后咽下,可以起到一定的缓解作用。

  【扁豆】:

  多在夏秋季节食用。对由脾胃虚弱导致的食欲不振、腹泻、呕吐、女性白带等症状,可以起到一定的治疗效果。糖尿病患者由于脾胃虚弱,经常感到口干舌燥,平时最好多吃扁豆。女性可以将扁豆炒熟成末,每次6—12克,用糯米酒或温水送服,能够缓解白带多的症状。

  【刀豆】:

  味甘、性温,具有暖脾胃、下气、益肾、补充元气的作用。适用于气滞、打嗝、胸闷不适、腰痛等症状。嫩刀豆用来煮食或制成酱菜,不仅味道鲜美,还有温补的作用;老刀豆则对打嗝的治疗效果最好。

  【豌豆】:

  豌豆的味甘、性平,常吃能够补中益气、利小便。适用于脾胃虚弱所导致的食少、腹胀等症状。哺乳期妇女吃了,还有助于增加奶量。

用法用量

  四季豆无论单独清炒,还是和肉类同炖,亦或是焯熟凉拌都很符合人们的口味。 

  1.烹调前应将豆筋摘除,否则既影响口感,又不易消化。

  2.烹煮时间宜长不宜短,要保证四季豆熟透,否则会发生中毒。

  3.为防止中毒发生,扁豆食前应加处理,可用沸水焯透或热油煸,直至变色熟透,方可安全食用。

  防菜豆角中毒,指出为预防加工不当造成食物中毒,菜豆角在加热时要注意翻炒均匀、煮熟焖透,使菜豆失去原有的生绿色和豆腥味。大锅炒制时,应将豆角先用热水焯熟后再炒。若食用后出现恶心呕吐等消化道中毒症状,应立即到医院就诊。菜豆、扁豆、四季豆、芸豆、刀豆、东北大豆角等,菜豆角中毒的潜伏期为30分钟至5小时,多数为2至4小时,中毒表现主要为消化系统和神经系统症状,可出现急性胃肠炎症状,上部不适或部烧灼感,腹胀,恶心呕吐,腹痛、腹泻,多为水样便,重者可呕血,头晕、头痛,四肢麻木,可有胸闷、心慌、冷汗,体温多正常或伴有低热。

烹饪方法

焯豆角小窍门

  1.豆角焯水时加入少许盐和色拉油,可以使豆角颜色更绿,更鲜嫩。

  2.豆角一定要焯透,以防止中毒。

  3.豆角焯水后投凉,可以使其口感更脆爽。

干煸豆角

  【用料】:豆角、肉馅。

  【调料】:盐、酱油、料酒、葱。

  【做法】:

  1、将豆角去筋,洗净,滤干水分;葱、姜切成末;

  2、将炒锅放在火上,放入油(比平时炒菜稍多些),放入豆角翻炒。待豆角中水份出来,变皱,上面有深色的斑点。盛出。

  3、锅中留底油,放入麻椒、辣椒略炒。将肉馅放入煸炒,再放入料酒、酱油、葱末、姜末,糖和盐。将豆角下锅,翻炒均匀即可出锅装盘。

番茄豆角炒蛋

  【原料】:豆角10根、西红柿1个、鸡蛋两只。

  【辅料】:生抽1茶匙、糖1茶匙、盐1/2匙、葱。

  【做法】:

  1、豆角洗净,去筋丝儿,焯煮2-3分钟,取出,斜切细段;

  2、西红柿洗净,切成细块;鸡蛋充分打散,加入1/4匙盐拌匀;

  3、锅中烧热油,下入蛋液,炒至八成熟盛出;

  4、锅中再倒入油,烧热后,加入葱炒香,下入豆角,加入生抽翻炒一分钟,倒入西红柿块,加入糖和剩下的盐,翻炒至西红柿微微软烂;

  5、倒入鸡蛋,翻炒均匀后,点入少许香油,关火出锅。

  

酱香豆角土豆

  【原料】:豆角、土豆。

  【做法】:

  1、油热甜面酱,郫县豆瓣酱炒香;

  2、放入蒜末,葱段,炒香;

  3、放入豆角土豆小火焖15分钟即可。

 

虾酱炒豆角

  【原料】:豆角300克、虾酱20克、油10克、高汤50克、蒜蓉姜末5克、辣椒1个。

  【做法】:

  1、准备好豆角,去掉头尾的尖角和根蒂;

  2、把豆角切成五厘米长的段,洗净后用淡盐水浸泡30分钟;

  3、准备好虾酱,豆角沥干水备用;

  4、锅烧热,倒油,倒入豆角翻炒至变成翠绿色;

  5、倒入高汤,没过豆角;

  6、大火煮开,调成中小火,加盖焖至3-5分钟;

  7、豆角变软,加入虾酱,快速翻炒入味;

  8、最后放蒜蓉姜末及辣椒粒炒香即可出锅。

  

干豆角烧肉

  【原料】:干豆角50g、五花肉500g、油1汤匙、葱姜蒜少许、老抽1汤匙、生抽3汤匙、八角1个、桂皮一小块、香菜1根。

  【做法】:

  1、干豆角提前一夜泡发。发好切段,五花肉切大块,过水焯一下。

  2、锅里热油,放入五花肉小火煎至微黄出油,放入葱姜蒜煸炒出香,然后放入生抽老抽翻炒一下。

  3、倒入足量开水,大火烧开后下入八角和桂皮转中小火炖30分钟,放入豆角,继续炖20分钟即可。出锅前调入香菜。

  

腊味豆丝

  【原料】:芸豆角300克、腊肉100克、盐、生抽、鸡精。

  【做法】:

  1、腊肉放入水中煮熟,切成薄片;

  2、芸豆切丝;

  3、锅内放少许色拉油,下入腊肉炒香;

  4、放入芸豆丝翻炒,出锅前调味即可。

  

适用人群

  妇女多白带者,皮肤瘙痒,急性肠炎者更适合食用,同时适宜癌症、 急性肠胃炎、食欲不振者食用;不适宜腹胀者。豆角使人头脑宁静;调理消化系统,消除胸膈胀满。可防治急性肠胃炎、呕吐腹泻。食用生豆角或未炒熟的豆角容易 引起中毒,这是由于生豆角中含有两种对人体有害的物质:溶血素和毒蛋白。当人们吃了生豆角后,这两种毒素对胃肠道有强烈的刺激作用,轻者感到腹部不适,重 者出现呕吐、腹泻等中毒症状,尤其是儿童。虽然豆角中的这两种物质对人体有毒,但它有自身的特点和弱点,即不耐高温。因此,不论家里的父母,还是托儿所的 厨师,在给孩子做豆角这道菜时,一定要充分加热煮熟,或急火加热10分钟以上,以保证豆角熟透,有害物质就会分解变成无毒物质了。

豆角鉴别


   质量好的四季豆,豆荚果呈翠绿色、饱满,豆粒呈青白色或红棕色,有光泽,鲜嫩清香。否则其质量就较差。扁豆,特别是经过霜打的鲜扁豆,含有大量的皂甙和血球凝集素。食用时若没有熟透,则会发生中毒。经及时治疗,大多数病人在2-4小时内即可恢复健康! 

  


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